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Assessment, Evaluation, Test, Examination, measurement
Basis for further pedagogic decisions
Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment
Critical review of current Evaluation practices and their Assumptions about learning and development
Dimensions and levels of learning
Distinction between 'Assessment of Learning' and 'Assessment for Learning'
Enlarging notions of 'subject-based learning' in a constructivist perspective
Evolving suitable criteria for assessment
Feedback as an essential component of formative assessment
Formative and Summative Evaluation
Formulating tasks and questions that engage the learner and demonstrate the process of thinking; scope for original responses
Kinds of tasks - projects, assignment, performances
Kinds of tests and their construction
Observation of learning processes by self, by peers, by teacher
Organizing and planning for student portfolios and developing rubrics for portfolios assessment
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Formative and Summative Evaluation
and Summative Evaluation
There are many different types of evaluations depending on the object being evaluated and the purpose of the evaluation. Perhaps the most important basic distinction in evaluation types is that between
evaluation. Formative evaluations strengthen or improve the object being evaluated -- they help form it by examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context, personnel, procedures, inputs, and so on. Summative evaluations, in contrast, examine the effects or outcomes of some object -- they summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object.
- Summative assessment is generally carried out at the end of a
or project. In an educational setting, summative assessments are typically used to assign students a course grade.
- Formative assessment is generally carried out throughout a course or project. Formative assessment, also referred to as "educative assessment," is used to aid learning. In an
setting, formative assessment might be a teacher (or
) or the learner, providing feedback on a student's
, and would not necessarily be used for grading purposes.
explains the difference between formative and summative assessment with the following analogy:
" When the cook tastes the soup, that's formative. When the guests taste the soup, that's summative. "
includes several evaluation types:
determines who needs the program, how great the need is, and what might work to meet the need
determines whether an evaluation is feasible and how stakeholders can help shape its usefulness
helps stakeholders define the program or technology, the target population, and the possible outcomes
monitors the fidelity of the program or technology delivery
investigates the process of delivering the program or technology, including alternative delivery procedures
) refers to the
of the learning and summarizes the development of learners at a particular time. After a period of work, e.g. a unit for two weeks, the learner sits for a test and then the teacher marks the test and assigns a score. The test aims to summarize learning up to that point. The test may also be used for diagnostic assessment to identify any weaknesses and then build on that using
Summative assessment is commonly used to refer to assessment of educational faculty by their respective supervisor. It is imposed onto the faculty member, and uniformly applied, with the object of measuring all teachers on the same criteria to determine the level of their performance. It is meant to meet the
or district's needs for teacher accountability and looks to provide remediation for sub-standard performance and also provides grounds for dismissal if necessary. The evaluation usually takes the shape of a form, and consists of check lists and occasionally narratives. Areas evaluated include classroom climate, instruction, professionalism, and planning and preparation.
Summative assessment is characterized as assessment
learning and is contrasted with formative assessment, which is assessment
It provides information on the product's efficacy (its ability to do what it was designed to do). For example, did the learners learn what they were supposed to learn after using the instructional module. In a sense, it does not bother to assess "how they did," but more importantly, by looking at how the learners performed, it provides information as to whether the product teaches what it is supposed to teach.
It tends to use well defined evaluation designs. [i.e. fixed time and content]
It provides descriptive analysis. [i.e. in order to give a grade, all the activities done throughout the year are taken into account]
It tends to stress local effects.
It is unoppressive and not reactive as far as possible.
It is positive, tending to stress what students can do rather than what they cannot.
can also be subdivided:
investigate whether the program or technology caused demonstrable effects on specifically defined target outcomes
is broader and assesses the overall or net effects -- intended or unintended -- of the program or technology as a whole
cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis
address questions of efficiency by standardizing outcomes in terms of their dollar costs and values
reexamines existing data to address new questions or use methods not previously employed
integrates the outcome estimates from multiple studies to arrive at an overall or summary judgement on an evaluation question
Formative versus Summative Evaluation
Formative evaluation is a process of ongoing feedback on performance. The purposes are to identify aspects of performance that need to improve and to offer corrective suggestions. Be generous with formative evaluation. Share your observations and perceptions with the student. You might simply share your observation and then ask the student if (s)he can think of a better approach for the next time. Formative evaluation need not make a judgment. When giving formative feedback, offer some alternatives to the student, e.g., "That procedure will be more comfortable for the patient if you?." If you observe unsafe or questionable practices, address those directly and immediately with the student.
Use the student's patient management documentation as well as your observations of performance to offer formative evaluation. The student's charting reveals organizational skills, priorities, thought process, and judgment. Over the duration of the student's experience with you, point out improvement to the student.
Summative evaluation is a process of identifying larger patterns and trends in performance and judging these summary statements against criteria to obtain performance ratings. The faculty assumes responsibility for completing the summative evaluation at the end of the course. However, faculty rely upon your evidence and perceptions to justify ratings.
The table below compares formative and summative evaluation according to the kind of information provided and the timing.
Specific description of daily events
General trends based on specific descriptions
Comparison with evaluation tool
When to give
At the time of the incident
Mid-point in the course
End of the day
End of the course
Weekly re: progress
Give both formative and summative evaluation to the student in private as a general rule. However, formative evaluation is needed if safety concerns arise in a student's practice while with a patient. Also, at times you will lose a learning opportunity if you do not give the student a chance to practice an alternative approach at the time, but reserve your suggestions for a later conversation. Use your judgment and employ tact and sensitivity to avoid embarrassing the student.
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